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Bourbon - America's Spirit

2010.01.27 21:54 TheColonel Bourbon - America's Spirit

We talk about bourbon, rye, or any American whiskey here (yes, even Jack). Reviews and discussions are encouraged, check out the stuff we've compiled in the sidebar and our review archive!
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2014.02.21 06:47 neo-nonpua Life+Women: Seduction, Dating, Sex, and Relationships - for Men, about Women

We look at dating, sex and relationships from outside the mainstream obsession with "seduction", "dating advice", "self-help" or even the rituals surrounding "picking up girls". Life comes first -- women are part of the spice of life, not the main course. If this subreddit is currently set to "private", request access by [sending a private message to nonpua, the head moderator (click here)](http://www.reddit.com/message/compose/?to=nonpua&subject=Access to the lifepluswomen subreddit).
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2014.02.11 07:19 nonpua Life+Lair: The Real World Location-Finder For Guys Who Want To Meet Girls.

Whether you're in your home town or a foreign city, this subreddit will help you find other guys who share the purpose of meeting girls.
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2020.09.21 00:20 WagonWheel1268 DAE feel like their trauma isn't valid after hearing nightmare stories even though they know they've been through shit?

Gonna go on a total tirade here and get some things off my chest. I'm covering a lot here so if your cptsd gets tripped easily, please continue with caution.
I'm bouta drop a lot on you, theres a TL;DR down towards the bottom if you want to get to the point
15, M, went through a slew of things
My parents divorce when I was 6, I had to move 3 separate times after they did and I lost 3 separate groups of friends from my old place and the other 2 places I moved to before moving to my current place, where I've lived since 2014.
My dad remarried a water buffalo of a woman who was borderline abusive to me and my dad and my stepmom both were explicitly abusive to my little brother, even physically.
Also, I never heard from my mom for most of that time. I only saw her in person once in 2014 when she showed up on our doorstep one day. I never had a consistent support figure, and my dad never got me a counselor until after a court date back in december 2019, and the timing of the counselor, who I first met with in January, one month later, as well as other things my mom has showed me, lead me to believe that he was just trying to look better in court.
I first got to visit my mom in July of 2019 and I've gotten closer with her since then, but the gap between us is palpable and I'm not sure I'll ever really be comfortable with normal people things like hugging because a mother figure was absent for so long.
I've had enough mental breakdowns that I have a hard time seeing how people view them as almost as bad as a stroke.
Everything I've been through has affected me in ways that I can't effectively comprehend, and I still haven't seen a therapist to check for disorders like cptsd, which is one of the essential things that should be done after a divorce, along side family and marital counseling, which also never happened.
I think a lot about the past, and whenever I see certain dates, I think "Oh that's when XYZ happened" and I'll get all feely.
TL;DR I've been through stuff
I can't remember very much about practically anything, my memory is pretty poor.
I feel like I'm in this weird space where I've had enough happen to me that I can't relate with people a whole lot but I haven't been through physical abuse, gang violence, or sexual assault, so my experiences aren't valid.
Writing it all down on paper makes it seem like a lot, but I don't have flashbacks or nightmares or get anxiety from things related to my past trauma, and hearing other people's stories makes me feel like I haven't been through real trauma, I've just been really sad before.
Anybody else get this feeling?
submitted by WagonWheel1268 to CPTSD [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 22:56 human1526 [Show and tell] The Xaling Race.

Idk if full races are ok but...
http://imgur.com/a/PqB7VRY
The Xaling (ˈzɔːlɪŋ) originate from an overgrown, cold, yet jungle like planet containing nine contents, and three oceans.
24.5 bar atmosphere. Most of the atmosphere is helium, the second most abundant element, all hydrogen has become bonded with other things or become methane. Nitrogen makes up about three percent of the atmosphere and trace gasses make the other one percent.
~(-100°C) boiling point of methane
~(-180°C) freezing point of methane
(-147°C) average planetary temperature.
Sun is 1.1 solar masses
Distance from Sun is 5.5 AU
(822,800,000 km)
Planetary mass 1.3×Earth
12.2963 Earth year orbital period
Nearest star: laurak, and ain. A binary class k and class g star. Based on current orbital speed and atmospheric thickness, the xaling homeworld was likely floating through the galaxy for about 1 billion years, and did not originate from the laurak/ain system.
Nearest star distance: 4.6 - 4.7 LY
Planetary origin.
The Xaling homeworld was originally an ice ball of sorts, covered in frozen methane as it floated between star systems, picking up a thick helium and hydrogen atmosphere in the process.
As it approached and was captured by a star the planet warmed, allowing the methane to liquify into oceans and most of the hydrogen atmosphere to cook off, bond with other things, or become more methane. Using methane as a solvent similar to earth life with water, hydrocarbon based xenobiology began to form, and eventually led to multicellular organisms.
Being a captured planet is also why it's orbit is not on the same plane as the other planets, along with the orbit direction and planetary spin being opposite of other objects in the system.
Evolution:
The Xaling originate from the north aclesian mud krisk, a hairless brown spider like creature with a ball shaped body, four knobby legs, and four small pincers on the end of primitive arm like structures that hang under it's head. This creature exhibits primitive intelligence, and has been seen throwing rocks or sticks at other members of their group. This is thought to be a form of play among the younger krisk, as they may toss a rock back and forth among each other.
A number of krisk migrated east of aclesia and into a planes like region in rqun where they evolved into a now extinct species with slightly longer limbs and purple skin.
This extinct species eventually diverged, one half staying on the planes in rqun, while the other half moved south, through the Equatorial jungle.
Dawn of Xaling civilisation:
Those who remained on the planes became fatter, allowing for longer time between feedings, and learned how to farm the purple grass like plants that grew there. Soon, they began making more permanent living spaces, digging their burrows deep into the ground, and eventually, making the first city.
Within 100 years of the first city they had developed a social class system, Monetary units of pressed iron, a delicacy similar to soup that is still enjoyed today, and most importantly, began building free standing structures.
Xaling cites spread across the planes region, some splitting off, forming their own country. Wars where fought and over time a great empire came forth, it erected spires, some over 200 feet tall in an attempt to appease the gods above, may they provide extra rain this year and ward off disease among livestock.
This empire reached a golden age and forgot their religion as they eventually created computers, automated production, and medical advancements. The Xaling population exploded as the death rate fell, but with more Xaling came a greater need for food. A lack of food caused by drought, blight, and the rise of crime led to a coup, the government was overthrown and the rebels could not hold the empire together, within a year it collapsed into 30 small nations.
The nations fought among one another, eventually becoming a total of 12.
In an effort to find more land to support a starving population the king of fearn approved an expedition into the equatorial jungles, believing that more land may be found on the other side of bug, parasite, and disease infested toxic land.
The expedition traveled for 455 days before reaching the other side, only 22 of the original 300 had survived. Rather than finding more planes land as they had hoped, they where met with a forested land, where the ground was clear, yet eternally cloaked in darkness as strange tree like structures fought for sun in the mile high canopy.
They soon encountered a village of strange Xaling with odd growths. They farmed exotic plants, fed strange meat sacks that hung from above, and lived in fleshy huts that grew from the ground.
Southern history:
When primitive Xaling reached the new land of darkness in the continent of tres they discovered a plant that can grow in the dark, and small snake like creatures that have offspring on a daily basis, now known as the "Jungle Buffalo" despite their desert origin. (Deep south)
Adapting to have more eyes than their planes based counterparts, they could see better in the dark. Soon they too built citys, and to an extent, their own countrys.
The southern Xaling, though they had fewer countrys, less population, and fought each other less, where much more technologically advanced.
Being able to eat the lightless plants, and the daily offspring of the jungle buffalo, allowed for a more nutritious diet. While the Xaling of rqun fought for space and where desperate for food, the Xaling of tres often existed peacefully due to the abundant resources and where allowed more time in their day to innovate and make their life even easier.
Following the creation of computers, the southern Xaling sent an expedition to the north. A number of archeologists theorised the existence of richer thorium deposits, the difference being caused by plate movement. The expedition worked through the equatorial jungles, met a village of territorial fat planes Xaling, and where killed.
After another expedition was sent and brought word of the situation back to the southern capital the government decided to leave the north alone, they will ether advance to a level in which war is unthinkable, reach a level in which they can cross the jungles and must be given more serious thought, or they will annihilate themselves, allowing the south to sweep across their ruins. They will ether advance and contact the south, or Parrish, leaving their land open to colonisation. The south need only wait.
The south soon advanced their technology beyond machines and into the world of bioengineering, eventually discovering the flat, a bacteria that can be used for bioware augmentations and growth of biological structures.
The time of machines came and went as the southern Xaling began to grow their houses and factorys. Muscled tubes criss crossed the land and underground, cargo and passengers packed into large, ribbed, football shaped containers that the tubes pushed from one city to another.
The arrival of an expedition from the north sparked a movement among the southern xaling, pressuring the government to unite the two sides.
Long Biopassages with hard outer shells where grown across the toxic jungles.
Discovery of the south and creation of the passages caused conflict among the northern nations as those bordering the jungle had more ease of access.
The south soon closed off the passages, stating that the north must collect themselves before engaging in further contact.
It is unclear what happened to the northern Xaling next, all records of the north where destroyed in some great war, the south is the only reason information from before the war was saved.
After 50 years had passed the south opened up the passages again out of concern for the north, finding that most major citys had been destroyed and what few northern Xaling where left had fallen into a state of technobarbarism, surviving in the ruins, feeding on each other and what pests scurried around. Some groups worshiping what little technology they had.
The south spread across the northern lands and brought the barbaric hordes back into civility, soon they spread across the rest of their planet, creating a vast empire to last the ages. 100 years later, they invented flight, and 50 after that, the first rocket.
After reaching the edge of their solar system they encountered a great ship. 1000 miles long, the "RMS CONTACT" had been watching the little Xaling for over 1500 years, waiting for them to unify their planet and reach for the stars, seeing eye to eye on most idealistic issues and a mutual curiosity, the Xaling and Rodan machine race began trade, and have existed without major conflict.
Life:
Xaling typically have a hatch of 7. Younglings are born with 6-34 eyes, but 95% have between 14 and 22, it is extremely rare to have an odd number of eyes. Hatchlings are usually smart enough to speak by the end of three months and strong enough to crawl by eight months, though it is only at one year old that they grow arms and claws with two "fingers" on the top arms, and three on the stronger low arms.
Xaling begin working with their parents at this stage, the parents leading their young ones in completing various tasks. This prepares them for following instructions in school and latter in life, along with teaching the 1/20 Xaling who are slightly more intelligent how to lead.
Between age one and five, a young xaling may claim a "comfort rock" that it grows attached to. This is thought to be an old evolutionary quark from the mud krisk, brought out by the young following their instincts more closely, typically growing out of it by age five.
At year four the Xaling are given tags, there are often too many for names alone to be meaningful, the tag contains a 12 digit number, their date of birth, and common name.
Young Xaling take classes of 100, attending every day, 10 hours a day, year round, all the way until they are 22.
They then enter a secondary school where they might pick a career and learn of it.
After the secondary school they may begin working, often starting in low level janitorial jobs, slowly buying augmentations and working their way up as their augmentations allow them to perform better than their counterparts.
Xaling usually live to be 120 years old without augmentations, with them their max life span is inconclusive. This often results in the most augmented and oldest Xaling being the most powerful, the older you are, the more money you have, and money is power.
With money, age, and inevitable boredom, comes the need for things to do and things to want. Various forms of metal art, gems, glass, and intricate food art are consumed by the super rich, with some malls as big as citys, the largest of which has over 30,000 stores under a single roof.
Cybernetics, Biocybernetics and Cybercosis
Augmentation is common, if not necessary for success in Xaling society, though they cannot be installed in a Xaling less than 20, due to continuing brain development.
CYBERNETICS are often the cheeper alternative for augmentations, being made of metal and computers, they often run hot and are inefficient at complex tasks, though they are generally good enough or even preferable for basic functions like replacing an eye, limb, or fast mathematical processing. Using cheeper cybernetics and material may require the use of an immunosuppressant to avoid an adverse reaction, though this increases the risk of infection and general disease.
Because if this, though there are very cheep cybernetics on the black market all but the poorest of lower class and those in rough neighborhoods use proper stores and hospitals to install them. Metal armor and voluntary limb replacement is quite common in rough and poor districts.
BIOCYBERNETICS are much more expensive and rare. Most can only be acquired through a hospital with proper growing vats/tubes and the ability to program flats, though a few high end stores, may have a basic biokit to install them.
Biokits may also be gotten on the black market, though they can cause severe side effects or death if not operated properly, the lower class may use biocybernetics, though they are much more risky than the mechanical alternative given the reputation of lower class biomechanics.
CYBERCOSIS is a mental, condition wherein the subject looses touch with reality due to over augmentation.
Though the effects can vary widely based on the enhancements, and the subject's mental predisposition. Cybercosis is less common in subjects with biocybernetics, though not unheard of.
Physical
Physical enhancement has the least impact on xaling psychology. Mental side effects are extremely rare, however with full body replacement also comes full sensory replacement and possible overload. (See sensory below) most side effects are caused by a subject's ethics and personal philosophy.
Physical enhancements can cause a sense of emptiness and depression, having lost most of their biological body, some subjects may feel that all they need is electricity and a paste to feed their nervous system, making other things and their life seem pointless, like eating, sleeping, and socializing. This may be a gradual and creeping sense of dread as more augmentation is added, or begin as a sudden realization of what the subject has become.
On the other end, a subject may be thrilled with the idea, feeling that it has made them near immortal, and having freed them from the needs of a biological body, perhaps feeling more familiar with machines than their own biological brethren. These may be refered to as cybrx (ˈsaɪbrs), a corruption of cybrex (ˈsaɪbrɛks), the name given to them by humans when they came in contact with the xaling, since the effects of modification on these individuals are similar to the effects on heavily augmented human cybrex. (Was caused by a human typo and translation error. The error was discovered several hours later, however xaling scientists had already released the conversation transcript to reporters and media outlets, and the name stuck. For a time the scientific community refered to augmented xaling as cybrex, though they did eventually accept cybrx to help distinguish themselves from the human variant. Before humans there was no official name for the cybrx.)
While most will go about their normal lives, some cybrx may attempt to gather a following of like minded augmented xaling, feeling they need to free themselves from basic biological needs. These groups can range from reserved and closed off, to open and accepting of the unaugmented, keeping track of a credit to help pay for their conversion.
Individuals may rise among the cybrx that ether have a predisposition causing insanity, or may suffer from too many mental or sensory augmentation.
Attacks from over augmented cybrx are very rare, though quite devastating. An average of 0.005/100,000 people die (an average of 25 per square mile) every year from such attacks. (There are ~1,000,000,000,000 Xaling on their homeworld. A total of ~5,000,000 world wide die every year from attacks. This sounds like allot, but consider that 292,320,000 xaling hatch every day planet wide.) Although being a cybrx in and of it's self is not harmful, or risky to others, the aforementioned damage caused by a sick cybrx, and the media have created a negative misconception about heavy physical augmentation.
A special squad of police are used to respond to attacks, they are often remote controlled war machines or manned biomechs equiped to capture or (usually) kill the agitators. The rodan may assist or arm these squads, basic rodan weapons being more advanced than most xaling equipment, along with a stronger bipedal body better designed for physical combat.
25%-30% of the population may qualify to be a cybrx. ~2% of cybrx may be unstable.
sensory
Sensory cybernetics can cause sleeping issues and if too many are installed, can cause sensory overload.
Symptoms of overload usually entail schizophrenic behavior, such as mistrust of friends and a senseless fear of certain objects, such as a hammer, or knife laying on the floor that could be used as a weapon, despite there being no one in sight.
Overloaded individuals may avoid or suddenly run away from friends and attempt to destroy or run away from the frightening object. It is extremely rare for subjects to attack friends during an anxiety attack.
Individuals suffering from an anxiety attack may be reported and taken in by the government, having their cybernetics removed and put into rehabilitation, often having a full recovery within a year.
~90% of the population have sensory systems. ~5% of the population may be unstable.
mental
Mental enhancement is some of the most complex, as it adds to or replaces part of the subject's brain.
Mental enhancements are almost never done by established shops and often too expensive for low lives to buy on the black market. The most basic of mechanical mental enhancements are more expensive than most biological enhancements of the other two categories.
Mental enhancements have the greatest effect out of all mods, but also the greatest risk, and adverse effects.
It is much rarer for someone to become unstable from too many mental enhancements due to cost prohibiting most people from getting more than one or two, however, there have been a few cases where higher class citizens have gone crazy, or developed a split personality from too many augments.
Symptoms typically range from loosing time, to sleep walking for several days, to loosing control over your body, being traped inside, only able to watch as your mods work as you.
There are very few known methods of detecting and helping a person who has too many mental implants, due to the delicate nature of them, and potential to loose vast amounts of memory if they are deactivated, due to the subject's brain relying on them to store data or process information. Removing the mods may leve the subject a vegetable.
Because of their inherent danger, mental enhancements are highly regulated, and only so many can be made per year.
The government bids out the right to make these enhancements every 10 years, with the cost getting added to the highest bidder's taxes.
~40% of the population have at least one mental implant. ~1% may be overcome by them.
otheunclear
There are many other augmentations that have an unclear position among the categories. An example would be neural plugs and I/O systems for the net. (internet)
Though they do connect to the brain, and may qualify as an addition in some respects, they are not considered mental augmentations since they usually do not handle cognitive processes, instead they are considered a sensory augment since they are enabling the connection between a biological brain and the net, usually through a brain's auditory and visual centers.
Religion:
Due to wide spread education and technology, religion is very rare among xaling, and what little there is usually has to do with the worship of technology, limbo, or the universe.
These religions usually pop up in poorly educated districts and are usually the result of misinterpreting a subject, especially limbo the entity and limbo subspace.
The largest underground religion is the "church of othob" with 12,000 members.
Though the government does not have a law against religion, they do discourage it.
Space politics:
Over the years sentiment grew between the Xaling and Rodan empires, both are very number orientated, and do not like to waist time, when they want something they get it. Xaling still maintain the majority of their population on their homeworld, often sharing worlds with the Rodan, who prefer a cold environment to properly run their factorys and computers, along with the ability to experiment with xaling DNA and methane based life, specifically methane based neural nets. In exchange the Rodan, with the best ships, offer highly discounted space travel and manufacturing services.
(Gold, due to it's electrical use and inherent rarity, is the galactic standard currency exchanged between all known races.)
The xaling and rodan have also gone on many research ventures. Rodan have a special interest in the aforementioned neural nets due to their ability to aid in parallel processing, more naturally extrapolate probability, and survive at the cold temperatures of space. Carbon based nets are very touchy and need to be warmed, while the machines next to it like to run cold. The downside being that cold hydrocarbon nets must be very pressurised, or kept at a very narrow temperature window so the methane does not freeze or boil. Keeping it in a small temperature window is not that hard for rodan technology and low pressure makes the container less dangerous if it fails, but there will be a significant slowdown since low pressure atoms become more spaced out, increasing signal travel distance, and calculation time.
Low pressure carbon based nets also have the disadvantage of using an axon with synapse at the end, while hydrocarbon nerves do not utilise an axon, instead having terminals and synapse branching off the main cell next to the dendrites. This makes the carbon nets slower than hydrocarbon ones at high pressures, and faster at low pressures. (The speed difference is more mellowed out with carbon nets, they still get slower at low pressures, and faster at high pressures, but not as much as hydrocarbon nets.)
In addition to neural nets, there have been multiple projects involving a regenerating hull for jumpships. Travel though limbo can be very corrosive to a ship's hull depending on how fast you go and how close to gravity wells you get. A hull that can regenerate would allow for longer jumps and would do away with the need for hull inspection and time consuming plate replacement.
Several experimental ships have been fitted with a regenerating carapace, however it has proven to grow far too slowly and consumes far too much food material to be practical and does not work well with extremely hot plasma shields.
It has been theorised that regenerating hulls may be practical for 1000 mile long void class ships, due to the square/cube law, though such a massive venture has not yet been tested.
Xaling ships:
As mentioned before, most transportation is done with rodan vessels though the xaling still favor their own ships for some scientific endeavors in other systems, and mining, where renting a rodan ship is too expensive for the profitable collection and selling of fusionable material. (Mostly hydrogen from gas giants.)
That being said, xaling ships are commonly made of steel, aluminum, or some other metallic substance, and have an augmented xaling pilot connected to the ship. Most ships are controlled entirely by the pilot, and any crew are usually security (turret crew and boarding party deterrent), engineers (repair), and medics.
Only the largest ships will have more than the pilot and captain connected to the bridge at the same time.
Piracy:
As with every space faring biological civilisation, there will be piracy. These pirates typically hide in caves, in planetary rings, and the far reaches of the solar system.
Pirates are usually poor miners, broke merchants, ships with mutineer crew, or escaped criminals.
These pirates, much like human pirates of old, usually leave people and bigger ships alone, and typically only kill when they are not given what they want, or need to keep up an image. (They are people, not ruthless animals after all.)
The most notable pirate is "commander blue". (Known for his once oddly blue skin, only known to happen when some xaling are born in space.) His father was a miner who's ship was mistakenly attacked by a rodan escort who was not informed by the xaling space controll agency of their presence near a gas giant.
Blue can qualify as a cybrx, (the name carried over, even after conversion.) commands at least 56 ships, and is known for boarding ships with his cloths on fire, attempting to paint an evil or crazy image of himself so the ship is less likely to resist once boarded. His first officer acts as a more down to earth moderator, pretending to argue against blue's seemingly insane ramblings to butcher, kill, or torture the captured ship's crew.
Blue has also been known to ram other ships if normal combat is ineffective (combat with greater than 1,000,000 miles between ships.) And is rumored to have a giant shipyard floating between stars somewhere in the buffalo nebulae. Though all attempts to find it have come up empty, causing some to believe the base is somewhere else, or does not exist.
Comments? Questions? Thoughts? Likes? Dislikes?
submitted by human1526 to characterforge [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 22:53 human1526 The Xaling race.

(Link to another post if you want to see a picture of them: https://www.reddit.com/worldbuilding/comments/iwl88n/the_xaling_race/)
The Xaling (ˈzɔːlɪŋ) originate from an overgrown, cold, yet jungle like planet containing nine contents, and three oceans.
24.5 bar atmosphere. Most of the atmosphere is helium, the second most abundant element, all hydrogen has become bonded with other things or become methane. Nitrogen makes up about three percent of the atmosphere and trace gasses make the other one percent.
~(-100°C) boiling point of methane
~(-180°C) freezing point of methane
(-147°C) average planetary temperature.
Sun is 1.1 solar masses
Distance from Sun is 5.5 AU
(822,800,000 km)
Planetary mass 1.3×Earth
12.2963 Earth year orbital period
Nearest star: laurak, and ain. A binary class k and class g star. Based on current orbital speed and atmospheric thickness, the xaling homeworld was likely floating through the galaxy for about 1 billion years, and did not originate from the laurak/ain system.
Nearest star distance: 4.6 - 4.7 LY
Planetary origin.
The Xaling homeworld was originally an ice ball of sorts, covered in frozen methane as it floated between star systems, picking up a thick helium and hydrogen atmosphere in the process.
As it approached and was captured by a star the planet warmed, allowing the methane to liquify into oceans and most of the hydrogen atmosphere to cook off, bond with other things, or become more methane. Using methane as a solvent similar to earth life with water, hydrocarbon based xenobiology began to form, and eventually led to multicellular organisms.
Being a captured planet is also why it's orbit is not on the same plane as the other planets, along with the orbit direction and planetary spin being opposite of other objects in the system.
Evolution:
The Xaling originate from the north aclesian mud krisk, a hairless brown spider like creature with a ball shaped body, four knobby legs, and four small pincers on the end of primitive arm like structures that hang under it's head. This creature exhibits primitive intelligence, and has been seen throwing rocks or sticks at other members of their group. This is thought to be a form of play among the younger krisk, as they may toss a rock back and forth among each other.
A number of krisk migrated east of aclesia and into a planes like region in rqun where they evolved into a now extinct species with slightly longer limbs and purple skin.
This extinct species eventually diverged, one half staying on the planes in rqun, while the other half moved south, through the Equatorial jungle.
Dawn of Xaling civilisation:
Those who remained on the planes became fatter, allowing for longer time between feedings, and learned how to farm the purple grass like plants that grew there. Soon, they began making more permanent living spaces, digging their burrows deep into the ground, and eventually, making the first city.
Within 100 years of the first city they had developed a social class system, Monetary units of pressed iron, a delicacy similar to soup that is still enjoyed today, and most importantly, began building free standing structures.
Xaling cites spread across the planes region, some splitting off, forming their own country. Wars where fought and over time a great empire came forth, it erected spires, some over 200 feet tall in an attempt to appease the gods above, may they provide extra rain this year and ward off disease among livestock.
This empire reached a golden age and forgot their religion as they eventually created computers, automated production, and medical advancements. The Xaling population exploded as the death rate fell, but with more Xaling came a greater need for food. A lack of food caused by drought, blight, and the rise of crime led to a coup, the government was overthrown and the rebels could not hold the empire together, within a year it collapsed into 30 small nations.
The nations fought among one another, eventually becoming a total of 12.
In an effort to find more land to support a starving population the king of fearn approved an expedition into the equatorial jungles, believing that more land may be found on the other side of bug, parasite, and disease infested toxic land.
The expedition traveled for 455 days before reaching the other side, only 22 of the original 300 had survived. Rather than finding more planes land as they had hoped, they where met with a forested land, where the ground was clear, yet eternally cloaked in darkness as strange tree like structures fought for sun in the mile high canopy.
They soon encountered a village of strange Xaling with odd growths. They farmed exotic plants, fed strange meat sacks that hung from above, and lived in fleshy huts that grew from the ground.
Southern history:
When primitive Xaling reached the new land of darkness in the continent of tres they discovered a plant that can grow in the dark, and small snake like creatures that have offspring on a daily basis, now known as the "Jungle Buffalo" despite their desert origin. (Deep south)
Adapting to have more eyes than their planes based counterparts, they could see better in the dark. Soon they too built citys, and to an extent, their own countrys.
The southern Xaling, though they had fewer countrys, less population, and fought each other less, where much more technologically advanced.
Being able to eat the lightless plants, and the daily offspring of the jungle buffalo, allowed for a more nutritious diet. While the Xaling of rqun fought for space and where desperate for food, the Xaling of tres often existed peacefully due to the abundant resources and where allowed more time in their day to innovate and make their life even easier.
Following the creation of computers, the southern Xaling sent an expedition to the north. A number of archeologists theorised the existence of richer thorium deposits, the difference being caused by plate movement. The expedition worked through the equatorial jungles, met a village of territorial fat planes Xaling, and where killed.
After another expedition was sent and brought word of the situation back to the southern capital the government decided to leave the north alone, they will ether advance to a level in which war is unthinkable, reach a level in which they can cross the jungles and must be given more serious thought, or they will annihilate themselves, allowing the south to sweep across their ruins. They will ether advance and contact the south, or Parrish, leaving their land open to colonisation. The south need only wait.
The south soon advanced their technology beyond machines and into the world of bioengineering, eventually discovering the flat, a bacteria that can be used for bioware augmentations and growth of biological structures.
The time of machines came and went as the southern Xaling began to grow their houses and factorys. Muscled tubes criss crossed the land and underground, cargo and passengers packed into large, ribbed, football shaped containers that the tubes pushed from one city to another.
The arrival of an expedition from the north sparked a movement among the southern xaling, pressuring the government to unite the two sides.
Long Biopassages with hard outer shells where grown across the toxic jungles.
Discovery of the south and creation of the passages caused conflict among the northern nations as those bordering the jungle had more ease of access.
The south soon closed off the passages, stating that the north must collect themselves before engaging in further contact.
It is unclear what happened to the northern Xaling next, all records of the north where destroyed in some great war, the south is the only reason information from before the war was saved.
After 50 years had passed the south opened up the passages again out of concern for the north, finding that most major citys had been destroyed and what few northern Xaling where left had fallen into a state of technobarbarism, surviving in the ruins, feeding on each other and what pests scurried around. Some groups worshiping what little technology they had.
The south spread across the northern lands and brought the barbaric hordes back into civility, soon they spread across the rest of their planet, creating a vast empire to last the ages. 100 years later, they invented flight, and 50 after that, the first rocket.
After reaching the edge of their solar system they encountered a great ship. 1000 miles long, the "RMS CONTACT" had been watching the little Xaling for over 1500 years, waiting for them to unify their planet and reach for the stars, seeing eye to eye on most idealistic issues and a mutual curiosity, the Xaling and Rodan machine race began trade, and have existed without major conflict.
Life:
Xaling typically have a hatch of 7. Younglings are born with 6-34 eyes, but 95% have between 14 and 22, it is extremely rare to have an odd number of eyes. Hatchlings are usually smart enough to speak by the end of three months and strong enough to crawl by eight months, though it is only at one year old that they grow arms and claws with two "fingers" on the top arms, and three on the stronger low arms.
Xaling begin working with their parents at this stage, the parents leading their young ones in completing various tasks. This prepares them for following instructions in school and latter in life, along with teaching the 1/20 Xaling who are slightly more intelligent how to lead.
Between age one and five, a young xaling may claim a "comfort rock" that it grows attached to. This is thought to be an old evolutionary quark from the mud krisk, brought out by the young following their instincts more closely, typically growing out of it by age five.
At year four the Xaling are given tags, there are often too many for names alone to be meaningful, the tag contains a 12 digit number, their date of birth, and common name.
Young Xaling take classes of 100, attending every day, 10 hours a day, year round, all the way until they are 22.
They then enter a secondary school where they might pick a career and learn of it.
After the secondary school they may begin working, often starting in low level janitorial jobs, slowly buying augmentations and working their way up as their augmentations allow them to perform better than their counterparts.
Xaling usually live to be 120 years old without augmentations, with them their max life span is inconclusive. This often results in the most augmented and oldest Xaling being the most powerful, the older you are, the more money you have, and money is power.
With money, age, and inevitable boredom, comes the need for things to do and things to want. Various forms of metal art, gems, glass, and intricate food art are consumed by the super rich, with some malls as big as citys, the largest of which has over 30,000 stores under a single roof.
Cybernetics, Biocybernetics and Cybercosis
Augmentation is common, if not necessary for success in Xaling society, though they cannot be installed in a Xaling less than 20, due to continuing brain development.
CYBERNETICS are often the cheeper alternative for augmentations, being made of metal and computers, they often run hot and are inefficient at complex tasks, though they are generally good enough or even preferable for basic functions like replacing an eye, limb, or fast mathematical processing. Using cheeper cybernetics and material may require the use of an immunosuppressant to avoid an adverse reaction, though this increases the risk of infection and general disease.
Because if this, though there are very cheep cybernetics on the black market all but the poorest of lower class and those in rough neighborhoods use proper stores and hospitals to install them. Metal armor and voluntary limb replacement is quite common in rough and poor districts.
BIOCYBERNETICS are much more expensive and rare. Most can only be acquired through a hospital with proper growing vats/tubes and the ability to program flats, though a few high end stores, may have a basic biokit to install them.
Biokits may also be gotten on the black market, though they can cause severe side effects or death if not operated properly, the lower class may use biocybernetics, though they are much more risky than the mechanical alternative given the reputation of lower class biomechanics.
CYBERCOSIS is a mental, condition wherein the subject looses touch with reality due to over augmentation.
Though the effects can vary widely based on the enhancements, and the subject's mental predisposition. Cybercosis is less common in subjects with biocybernetics, though not unheard of.
Physical
Physical enhancement has the least impact on xaling psychology. Mental side effects are extremely rare, however with full body replacement also comes full sensory replacement and possible overload. (See sensory below) most side effects are caused by a subject's ethics and personal philosophy.
Physical enhancements can cause a sense of emptiness and depression, having lost most of their biological body, some subjects may feel that all they need is electricity and a paste to feed their nervous system, making other things and their life seem pointless, like eating, sleeping, and socializing. This may be a gradual and creeping sense of dread as more augmentation is added, or begin as a sudden realization of what the subject has become.
On the other end, a subject may be thrilled with the idea, feeling that it has made them near immortal, and having freed them from the needs of a biological body, perhaps feeling more familiar with machines than their own biological brethren. These may be refered to as cybrx (ˈsaɪbrs), a corruption of cybrex (ˈsaɪbrɛks), the name given to them by humans when they came in contact with the xaling, since the effects of modification on these individuals are similar to the effects on heavily augmented human cybrex. (Was caused by a human typo and translation error. The error was discovered several hours later, however xaling scientists had already released the conversation transcript to reporters and media outlets, and the name stuck. For a time the scientific community refered to augmented xaling as cybrex, though they did eventually accept cybrx to help distinguish themselves from the human variant. Before humans there was no official name for the cybrx.)
While most will go about their normal lives, some cybrx may attempt to gather a following of like minded augmented xaling, feeling they need to free themselves from basic biological needs. These groups can range from reserved and closed off, to open and accepting of the unaugmented, keeping track of a credit to help pay for their conversion.
Individuals may rise among the cybrx that ether have a predisposition causing insanity, or may suffer from too many mental or sensory augmentation.
Attacks from over augmented cybrx are very rare, though quite devastating. An average of 0.005/100,000 people die (an average of 25 per square mile) every year from such attacks. (There are ~1,000,000,000,000 Xaling on their homeworld. A total of ~5,000,000 world wide die every year from attacks. This sounds like allot, but consider that 292,320,000 xaling hatch every day planet wide.) Although being a cybrx in and of it's self is not harmful, or risky to others, the aforementioned damage caused by a sick cybrx, and the media have created a negative misconception about heavy physical augmentation.
A special squad of police are used to respond to attacks, they are often remote controlled war machines or manned biomechs equiped to capture or (usually) kill the agitators. The rodan may assist or arm these squads, basic rodan weapons being more advanced than most xaling equipment, along with a stronger bipedal body better designed for physical combat.
25%-30% of the population may qualify to be a cybrx. ~2% of cybrx may be unstable.
sensory
Sensory cybernetics can cause sleeping issues and if too many are installed, can cause sensory overload.
Symptoms of overload usually entail schizophrenic behavior, such as mistrust of friends and a senseless fear of certain objects, such as a hammer, or knife laying on the floor that could be used as a weapon, despite there being no one in sight.
Overloaded individuals may avoid or suddenly run away from friends and attempt to destroy or run away from the frightening object. It is extremely rare for subjects to attack friends during an anxiety attack.
Individuals suffering from an anxiety attack may be reported and taken in by the government, having their cybernetics removed and put into rehabilitation, often having a full recovery within a year.
~90% of the population have sensory systems. ~5% of the population may be unstable.
mental
Mental enhancement is some of the most complex, as it adds to or replaces part of the subject's brain.
Mental enhancements are almost never done by established shops and often too expensive for low lives to buy on the black market. The most basic of mechanical mental enhancements are more expensive than most biological enhancements of the other two categories.
Mental enhancements have the greatest effect out of all mods, but also the greatest risk, and adverse effects.
It is much rarer for someone to become unstable from too many mental enhancements due to cost prohibiting most people from getting more than one or two, however, there have been a few cases where higher class citizens have gone crazy, or developed a split personality from too many augments.
Symptoms typically range from loosing time, to sleep walking for several days, to loosing control over your body, being traped inside, only able to watch as your mods work as you.
There are very few known methods of detecting and helping a person who has too many mental implants, due to the delicate nature of them, and potential to loose vast amounts of memory if they are deactivated, due to the subject's brain relying on them to store data or process information. Removing the mods may leve the subject a vegetable.
Because of their inherent danger, mental enhancements are highly regulated, and only so many can be made per year.
The government bids out the right to make these enhancements every 10 years, with the cost getting added to the highest bidder's taxes.
~40% of the population have at least one mental implant. ~1% may be overcome by them.
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There are many other augmentations that have an unclear position among the categories. An example would be neural plugs and I/O systems for the net. (internet)
Though they do connect to the brain, and may qualify as an addition in some respects, they are not considered mental augmentations since they usually do not handle cognitive processes, instead they are considered a sensory augment since they are enabling the connection between a biological brain and the net, usually through a brain's auditory and visual centers.
Religion:
Due to wide spread education and technology, religion is very rare among xaling, and what little there is usually has to do with the worship of technology, limbo, or the universe.
These religions usually pop up in poorly educated districts and are usually the result of misinterpreting a subject, especially limbo the entity and limbo subspace.
The largest underground religion is the "church of othob" with 12,000 members.
Though the government does not have a law against religion, they do discourage it.
Space politics:
Over the years sentiment grew between the Xaling and Rodan empires, both are very number orientated, and do not like to waist time, when they want something they get it. Xaling still maintain the majority of their population on their homeworld, often sharing worlds with the Rodan, who prefer a cold environment to properly run their factorys and computers, along with the ability to experiment with xaling DNA and methane based life, specifically methane based neural nets. In exchange the Rodan, with the best ships, offer highly discounted space travel and manufacturing services.
(Gold, due to it's electrical use and inherent rarity, is the galactic standard currency exchanged between all known races.)
The xaling and rodan have also gone on many research ventures. Rodan have a special interest in the aforementioned neural nets due to their ability to aid in parallel processing, more naturally extrapolate probability, and survive at the cold temperatures of space. Carbon based nets are very touchy and need to be warmed, while the machines next to it like to run cold. The downside being that cold hydrocarbon nets must be very pressurised, or kept at a very narrow temperature window so the methane does not freeze or boil. Keeping it in a small temperature window is not that hard for rodan technology and low pressure makes the container less dangerous if it fails, but there will be a significant slowdown since low pressure atoms become more spaced out, increasing signal travel distance, and calculation time.
Low pressure carbon based nets also have the disadvantage of using an axon with synapse at the end, while hydrocarbon nerves do not utilise an axon, instead having terminals and synapse branching off the main cell next to the dendrites. This makes the carbon nets slower than hydrocarbon ones at high pressures, and faster at low pressures. (The speed difference is more mellowed out with carbon nets, they still get slower at low pressures, and faster at high pressures, but not as much as hydrocarbon nets.)
In addition to neural nets, there have been multiple projects involving a regenerating hull for jumpships. Travel though limbo can be very corrosive to a ship's hull depending on how fast you go and how close to gravity wells you get. A hull that can regenerate would allow for longer jumps and would do away with the need for hull inspection and time consuming plate replacement.
Several experimental ships have been fitted with a regenerating carapace, however it has proven to grow far too slowly and consumes far too much food material to be practical and does not work well with extremely hot plasma shields.
It has been theorised that regenerating hulls may be practical for 1000 mile long void class ships, due to the square/cube law, though such a massive venture has not yet been tested.
Xaling ships:
As mentioned before, most transportation is done with rodan vessels though the xaling still favor their own ships for some scientific endeavors in other systems, and mining, where renting a rodan ship is too expensive for the profitable collection and selling of fusionable material. (Mostly hydrogen from gas giants.)
That being said, xaling ships are commonly made of steel, aluminum, or some other metallic substance, and have an augmented xaling pilot connected to the ship. Most ships are controlled entirely by the pilot, and any crew are usually security (turret crew and boarding party deterrent), engineers (repair), and medics.
Only the largest ships will have more than the pilot and captain connected to the bridge at the same time.
Piracy:
As with every space faring biological civilisation, there will be piracy. These pirates typically hide in caves, in planetary rings, and the far reaches of the solar system.
Pirates are usually poor miners, broke merchants, ships with mutineer crew, or escaped criminals.
These pirates, much like human pirates of old, usually leave people and bigger ships alone, and typically only kill when they are not given what they want, or need to keep up an image. (They are people, not ruthless animals after all.)
The most notable pirate is "commander blue". (Known for his once oddly blue skin, only known to happen when some xaling are born in space.) His father was a miner who's ship was mistakenly attacked by a rodan escort who was not informed by the xaling space controll agency of their presence near a gas giant.
Blue can qualify as a cybrx, (the name carried over, even after conversion.) commands at least 56 ships, and is known for boarding ships with his cloths on fire, attempting to paint an evil or crazy image of himself so the ship is less likely to resist once boarded. His first officer acts as a more down to earth moderator, pretending to argue against blue's seemingly insane ramblings to butcher, kill, or torture the captured ship's crew.
Blue has also been known to ram other ships if normal combat is ineffective (combat with greater than 1,000,000 miles between ships.) And is rumored to have a giant shipyard floating between stars somewhere in the buffalo nebulae. Though all attempts to find it have come up empty, causing some to believe the base is somewhere else, or does not exist.
Comments? Questions? Thoughts? Likes? Dislikes?
submitted by human1526 to casualworldbuilding [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 22:11 human1526 The Xaling race.

http://imgur.com/a/PqB7VRY
The Xaling (ˈzɔːlɪŋ) originate from an overgrown, cold, yet jungle like planet containing nine contents, and three oceans.
24.5 bar atmosphere. Most of the atmosphere is helium, the second most abundant element, all hydrogen has become bonded with other things or become methane. Nitrogen makes up about three percent of the atmosphere and trace gasses make the other one percent.
~(-100°C) boiling point of methane
~(-180°C) freezing point of methane
(-147°C) average planetary temperature.
Sun is 1.1 solar masses
Distance from Sun is 5.5 AU
(822,800,000 km)
Planetary mass 1.3×Earth
12.2963 Earth year orbital period
Nearest star: laurak, and ain. A binary class k and class g star. Based on current orbital speed and atmospheric thickness, the xaling homeworld was likely floating through the galaxy for about 1 billion years, and did not originate from the laurak/ain system.
Nearest star distance: 4.6 - 4.7 LY
Planetary origin.
The Xaling homeworld was originally an ice ball of sorts, covered in frozen methane as it floated between star systems, picking up a thick helium and hydrogen atmosphere in the process.
As it approached and was captured by a star the planet warmed, allowing the methane to liquify into oceans and most of the hydrogen atmosphere to cook off, bond with other things, or become more methane. Using methane as a solvent similar to earth life with water, hydrocarbon based xenobiology began to form, and eventually led to multicellular organisms.
Being a captured planet is also why it's orbit is not on the same plane as the other planets, along with the orbit direction and planetary spin being opposite of other objects in the system.
Evolution:
The Xaling originate from the north aclesian mud krisk, a hairless brown spider like creature with a ball shaped body, four knobby legs, and four small pincers on the end of primitive arm like structures that hang under it's head. This creature exhibits primitive intelligence, and has been seen throwing rocks or sticks at other members of their group. This is thought to be a form of play among the younger krisk, as they may toss a rock back and forth among each other.
A number of krisk migrated east of aclesia and into a planes like region in rqun where they evolved into a now extinct species with slightly longer limbs and purple skin.
This extinct species eventually diverged, one half staying on the planes in rqun, while the other half moved south, through the Equatorial jungle.
Dawn of Xaling civilisation:
Those who remained on the planes became fatter, allowing for longer time between feedings, and learned how to farm the purple grass like plants that grew there. Soon, they began making more permanent living spaces, digging their burrows deep into the ground, and eventually, making the first city.
Within 100 years of the first city they had developed a social class system, Monetary units of pressed iron, a delicacy similar to soup that is still enjoyed today, and most importantly, began building free standing structures.
Xaling cites spread across the planes region, some splitting off, forming their own country. Wars where fought and over time a great empire came forth, it erected spires, some over 200 feet tall in an attempt to appease the gods above, may they provide extra rain this year and ward off disease among livestock.
This empire reached a golden age and forgot their religion as they eventually created computers, automated production, and medical advancements. The Xaling population exploded as the death rate fell, but with more Xaling came a greater need for food. A lack of food caused by drought, blight, and the rise of crime led to a coup, the government was overthrown and the rebels could not hold the empire together, within a year it collapsed into 30 small nations.
The nations fought among one another, eventually becoming a total of 12.
In an effort to find more land to support a starving population the king of fearn approved an expedition into the equatorial jungles, believing that more land may be found on the other side of bug, parasite, and disease infested toxic land.
The expedition traveled for 455 days before reaching the other side, only 22 of the original 300 had survived. Rather than finding more planes land as they had hoped, they where met with a forested land, where the ground was clear, yet eternally cloaked in darkness as strange tree like structures fought for sun in the mile high canopy.
They soon encountered a village of strange Xaling with odd growths. They farmed exotic plants, fed strange meat sacks that hung from above, and lived in fleshy huts that grew from the ground.
Southern history:
When primitive Xaling reached the new land of darkness in the continent of tres they discovered a plant that can grow in the dark, and small snake like creatures that have offspring on a daily basis, now known as the "Jungle Buffalo" despite their desert origin. (Deep south)
Adapting to have more eyes than their planes based counterparts, they could see better in the dark. Soon they too built citys, and to an extent, their own countrys.
The southern Xaling, though they had fewer countrys, less population, and fought each other less, where much more technologically advanced.
Being able to eat the lightless plants, and the daily offspring of the jungle buffalo, allowed for a more nutritious diet. While the Xaling of rqun fought for space and where desperate for food, the Xaling of tres often existed peacefully due to the abundant resources and where allowed more time in their day to innovate and make their life even easier.
Following the creation of computers, the southern Xaling sent an expedition to the north. A number of archeologists theorised the existence of richer thorium deposits, the difference being caused by plate movement. The expedition worked through the equatorial jungles, met a village of territorial fat planes Xaling, and where killed.
After another expedition was sent and brought word of the situation back to the southern capital the government decided to leave the north alone, they will ether advance to a level in which war is unthinkable, reach a level in which they can cross the jungles and must be given more serious thought, or they will annihilate themselves, allowing the south to sweep across their ruins. They will ether advance and contact the south, or Parrish, leaving their land open to colonisation. The south need only wait.
The south soon advanced their technology beyond machines and into the world of bioengineering, eventually discovering the flat, a bacteria that can be used for bioware augmentations and growth of biological structures.
The time of machines came and went as the southern Xaling began to grow their houses and factorys. Muscled tubes criss crossed the land and underground, cargo and passengers packed into large, ribbed, football shaped containers that the tubes pushed from one city to another.
The arrival of an expedition from the north sparked a movement among the southern xaling, pressuring the government to unite the two sides.
Long Biopassages with hard outer shells where grown across the toxic jungles.
Discovery of the south and creation of the passages caused conflict among the northern nations as those bordering the jungle had more ease of access.
The south soon closed off the passages, stating that the north must collect themselves before engaging in further contact.
It is unclear what happened to the northern Xaling next, all records of the north where destroyed in some great war, the south is the only reason information from before the war was saved.
After 50 years had passed the south opened up the passages again out of concern for the north, finding that most major citys had been destroyed and what few northern Xaling where left had fallen into a state of technobarbarism, surviving in the ruins, feeding on each other and what pests scurried around. Some groups worshiping what little technology they had.
The south spread across the northern lands and brought the barbaric hordes back into civility, soon they spread across the rest of their planet, creating a vast empire to last the ages. 100 years later, they invented flight, and 50 after that, the first rocket.
After reaching the edge of their solar system they encountered a great ship. 1000 miles long, the "RMS CONTACT" had been watching the little Xaling for over 1500 years, waiting for them to unify their planet and reach for the stars, seeing eye to eye on most idealistic issues and a mutual curiosity, the Xaling and Rodan machine race began trade, and have existed without major conflict.
Life:
Xaling typically have a hatch of 7. Younglings are born with 6-34 eyes, but 95% have between 14 and 22, it is extremely rare to have an odd number of eyes. Hatchlings are usually smart enough to speak by the end of three months and strong enough to crawl by eight months, though it is only at one year old that they grow arms and claws with two "fingers" on the top arms, and three on the stronger low arms.
Xaling begin working with their parents at this stage, the parents leading their young ones in completing various tasks. This prepares them for following instructions in school and latter in life, along with teaching the 1/20 Xaling who are slightly more intelligent how to lead.
Between age one and five, a young xaling may claim a "comfort rock" that it grows attached to. This is thought to be an old evolutionary quark from the mud krisk, brought out by the young following their instincts more closely, typically growing out of it by age five.
At year four the Xaling are given tags, there are often too many for names alone to be meaningful, the tag contains a 12 digit number, their date of birth, and common name.
Young Xaling take classes of 100, attending every day, 10 hours a day, year round, all the way until they are 22.
They then enter a secondary school where they might pick a career and learn of it.
After the secondary school they may begin working, often starting in low level janitorial jobs, slowly buying augmentations and working their way up as their augmentations allow them to perform better than their counterparts.
Xaling usually live to be 120 years old without augmentations, with them their max life span is inconclusive. This often results in the most augmented and oldest Xaling being the most powerful, the older you are, the more money you have, and money is power.
With money, age, and inevitable boredom, comes the need for things to do and things to want. Various forms of metal art, gems, glass, and intricate food art are consumed by the super rich, with some malls as big as citys, the largest of which has over 30,000 stores under a single roof.
Cybernetics, Biocybernetics and Cybercosis
Augmentation is common, if not necessary for success in Xaling society, though they cannot be installed in a Xaling less than 20, due to continuing brain development.
CYBERNETICS are often the cheeper alternative for augmentations, being made of metal and computers, they often run hot and are inefficient at complex tasks, though they are generally good enough or even preferable for basic functions like replacing an eye, limb, or fast mathematical processing. Using cheeper cybernetics and material may require the use of an immunosuppressant to avoid an adverse reaction, though this increases the risk of infection and general disease.
Because if this, though there are very cheep cybernetics on the black market all but the poorest of lower class and those in rough neighborhoods use proper stores and hospitals to install them. Metal armor and voluntary limb replacement is quite common in rough and poor districts.
BIOCYBERNETICS are much more expensive and rare. Most can only be acquired through a hospital with proper growing vats/tubes and the ability to program flats, though a few high end stores, may have a basic biokit to install them.
Biokits may also be gotten on the black market, though they can cause severe side effects or death if not operated properly, the lower class may use biocybernetics, though they are much more risky than the mechanical alternative given the reputation of lower class biomechanics.
CYBERCOSIS is a mental, condition wherein the subject looses touch with reality due to over augmentation.
Though the effects can vary widely based on the enhancements, and the subject's mental predisposition. Cybercosis is less common in subjects with biocybernetics, though not unheard of.
Physical
Physical enhancement has the least impact on xaling psychology. Mental side effects are extremely rare, however with full body replacement also comes full sensory replacement and possible overload. (See sensory below) most side effects are caused by a subject's ethics and personal philosophy.
Physical enhancements can cause a sense of emptiness and depression, having lost most of their biological body, some subjects may feel that all they need is electricity and a paste to feed their nervous system, making other things and their life seem pointless, like eating, sleeping, and socializing. This may be a gradual and creeping sense of dread as more augmentation is added, or begin as a sudden realization of what the subject has become.
On the other end, a subject may be thrilled with the idea, feeling that it has made them near immortal, and having freed them from the needs of a biological body, perhaps feeling more familiar with machines than their own biological brethren. These may be refered to as cybrx (ˈsaɪbrs), a corruption of cybrex (ˈsaɪbrɛks), the name given to them by humans when they came in contact with the xaling, since the effects of modification on these individuals are similar to the effects on heavily augmented human cybrex. (Was caused by a human typo and translation error. The error was discovered several hours later, however xaling scientists had already released the conversation transcript to reporters and media outlets, and the name stuck. For a time the scientific community refered to augmented xaling as cybrex, though they did eventually accept cybrx to help distinguish themselves from the human variant. Before humans there was no official name for the cybrx.)
While most will go about their normal lives, some cybrx may attempt to gather a following of like minded augmented xaling, feeling they need to free themselves from basic biological needs. These groups can range from reserved and closed off, to open and accepting of the unaugmented, keeping track of a credit to help pay for their conversion.
Individuals may rise among the cybrx that ether have a predisposition causing insanity, or may suffer from too many mental or sensory augmentation.
Attacks from over augmented cybrx are very rare, though quite devastating. An average of 0.005/100,000 people die (an average of 25 per square mile) every year from such attacks. (There are ~1,000,000,000,000 Xaling on their homeworld. A total of ~5,000,000 world wide die every year from attacks. This sounds like allot, but consider that 292,320,000 xaling hatch every day planet wide.) Although being a cybrx in and of it's self is not harmful, or risky to others, the aforementioned damage caused by a sick cybrx, and the media have created a negative misconception about heavy physical augmentation.
A special squad of police are used to respond to attacks, they are often remote controlled war machines or manned biomechs equiped to capture or (usually) kill the agitators. The rodan may assist or arm these squads, basic rodan weapons being more advanced than most xaling equipment, along with a stronger bipedal body better designed for physical combat.
25%-30% of the population may qualify to be a cybrx. ~2% of cybrx may be unstable.
sensory
Sensory cybernetics can cause sleeping issues and if too many are installed, can cause sensory overload.
Symptoms of overload usually entail schizophrenic behavior, such as mistrust of friends and a senseless fear of certain objects, such as a hammer, or knife laying on the floor that could be used as a weapon, despite there being no one in sight.
Overloaded individuals may avoid or suddenly run away from friends and attempt to destroy or run away from the frightening object. It is extremely rare for subjects to attack friends during an anxiety attack.
Individuals suffering from an anxiety attack may be reported and taken in by the government, having their cybernetics removed and put into rehabilitation, often having a full recovery within a year.
~90% of the population have sensory systems. ~5% of the population may be unstable.
mental
Mental enhancement is some of the most complex, as it adds to or replaces part of the subject's brain.
Mental enhancements are almost never done by established shops and often too expensive for low lives to buy on the black market. The most basic of mechanical mental enhancements are more expensive than most biological enhancements of the other two categories.
Mental enhancements have the greatest effect out of all mods, but also the greatest risk, and adverse effects.
It is much rarer for someone to become unstable from too many mental enhancements due to cost prohibiting most people from getting more than one or two, however, there have been a few cases where higher class citizens have gone crazy, or developed a split personality from too many augments.
Symptoms typically range from loosing time, to sleep walking for several days, to loosing control over your body, being traped inside, only able to watch as your mods work as you.
There are very few known methods of detecting and helping a person who has too many mental implants, due to the delicate nature of them, and potential to loose vast amounts of memory if they are deactivated, due to the subject's brain relying on them to store data or process information. Removing the mods may leve the subject a vegetable.
Because of their inherent danger, mental enhancements are highly regulated, and only so many can be made per year.
The government bids out the right to make these enhancements every 10 years, with the cost getting added to the highest bidder's taxes.
~40% of the population have at least one mental implant. ~1% may be overcome by them.
otheunclear
There are many other augmentations that have an unclear position among the categories. An example would be neural plugs and I/O systems for the net. (internet)
Though they do connect to the brain, and may qualify as an addition in some respects, they are not considered mental augmentations since they usually do not handle cognitive processes, instead they are considered a sensory augment since they are enabling the connection between a biological brain and the net, usually through a brain's auditory and visual centers.
Religion:
Due to wide spread education and technology, religion is very rare among xaling, and what little there is usually has to do with the worship of technology, limbo, or the universe.
These religions usually pop up in poorly educated districts and are usually the result of misinterpreting a subject, especially limbo the entity and limbo subspace.
The largest underground religion is the "church of othob" with 12,000 members.
Though the government does not have a law against religion, they do discourage it.
Space politics:
Over the years sentiment grew between the Xaling and Rodan empires, both are very number orientated, and do not like to waist time, when they want something they get it. Xaling still maintain the majority of their population on their homeworld, often sharing worlds with the Rodan, who prefer a cold environment to properly run their factorys and computers, along with the ability to experiment with xaling DNA and methane based life, specifically methane based neural nets. In exchange the Rodan, with the best ships, offer highly discounted space travel and manufacturing services.
(Gold, due to it's electrical use and inherent rarity, is the galactic standard currency exchanged between all known races.)
The xaling and rodan have also gone on many research ventures. Rodan have a special interest in the aforementioned neural nets due to their ability to aid in parallel processing, more naturally extrapolate probability, and survive at the cold temperatures of space. Carbon based nets are very touchy and need to be warmed, while the machines next to it like to run cold. The downside being that cold hydrocarbon nets must be very pressurised, or kept at a very narrow temperature window so the methane does not freeze or boil. Keeping it in a small temperature window is not that hard for rodan technology and low pressure makes the container less dangerous if it fails, but there will be a significant slowdown since low pressure atoms become more spaced out, increasing signal travel distance, and calculation time.
Low pressure carbon based nets also have the disadvantage of using an axon with synapse at the end, while hydrocarbon nerves do not utilise an axon, instead having terminals and synapse branching off the main cell next to the dendrites. This makes the carbon nets slower than hydrocarbon ones at high pressures, and faster at low pressures. (The speed difference is more mellowed out with carbon nets, they still get slower at low pressures, and faster at high pressures, but not as much as hydrocarbon nets.)
In addition to neural nets, there have been multiple projects involving a regenerating hull for jumpships. Travel though limbo can be very corrosive to a ship's hull depending on how fast you go and how close to gravity wells you get. A hull that can regenerate would allow for longer jumps and would do away with the need for hull inspection and time consuming plate replacement.
Several experimental ships have been fitted with a regenerating carapace, however it has proven to grow far too slowly and consumes far too much food material to be practical and does not work well with extremely hot plasma shields.
It has been theorised that regenerating hulls may be practical for 1000 mile long void class ships, due to the square/cube law, though such a massive venture has not yet been tested.
Xaling ships:
As mentioned before, most transportation is done with rodan vessels though the xaling still favor their own ships for some scientific endeavors in other systems, and mining, where renting a rodan ship is too expensive for the profitable collection and selling of fusionable material. (Mostly hydrogen from gas giants.)
That being said, xaling ships are commonly made of steel, aluminum, or some other metallic substance, and have an augmented xaling pilot connected to the ship. Most ships are controlled entirely by the pilot, and any crew are usually security (turret crew and boarding party deterrent), engineers (repair), and medics.
Only the largest ships will have more than the pilot and captain connected to the bridge at the same time.
Piracy:
As with every space faring biological civilisation, there will be piracy. These pirates typically hide in caves, in planetary rings, and the far reaches of the solar system.
Pirates are usually poor miners, broke merchants, ships with mutineer crew, or escaped criminals.
These pirates, much like human pirates of old, usually leave people and bigger ships alone, and typically only kill when they are not given what they want, or need to keep up an image. (They are people, not ruthless animals after all.)
The most notable pirate is "commander blue". (Known for his once oddly blue skin, only known to happen when some xaling are born in space.) His father was a miner who's ship was mistakenly attacked by a rodan escort who was not informed by the xaling space controll agency of their presence near a gas giant.
Blue can qualify as a cybrx, (the name carried over, even after conversion.) commands at least 56 ships, and is known for boarding ships with his cloths on fire, attempting to paint an evil or crazy image of himself so the ship is less likely to resist once boarded. His first officer acts as a more down to earth moderator, pretending to argue against blue's seemingly insane ramblings to butcher, kill, or torture the captured ship's crew.
Blue has also been known to ram other ships if normal combat is ineffective (combat with greater than 1,000,000 miles between ships.) And is rumored to have a giant shipyard floating between stars somewhere in the buffalo nebulae. Though all attempts to find it have come up empty, causing some to believe the base is somewhere else, or does not exist.
Comments? Questions? Thoughts? Likes? Dislikes?
submitted by human1526 to worldbuilding [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 18:19 Infinitdfd [Official/Reddit](NFL) " Bills vs Dolphins " liVe STrEaMs-reddit-

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submitted by Infinitdfd to nfllivegameweek2 [link] [comments]


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submitted by erosanimus to NfSporEvnts [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 16:51 UnableWorths [[email protected]] 2020"Bills vs Dolphins" LIVE [email protected]

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submitted by UnableWorths to NFLWK2_Streams [link] [comments]


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submitted by Many_Cover1 to ALLSTREAMNFLLIVE [link] [comments]


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submitted by Many_Cover1 to ALLSTREAMNFLLIVE [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 15:35 fukoffdood whiskey trails... help

Coming from a girl (23f) who knows nothing about whiskey, I could use some help. I’m trying to plan a date idea for my boyfriend (24m) for his upcoming birthday. We live outside of Nashville, TN and have heard about some bourbon trails up in Kentucky. I am wanting to take him up there to visit some distilleries for tours/tasting/etc. I have been doing some research and am trying to find some of the best ones that are close by to one another. (Ex: Buffalo trace, old forester, Wood Ford)
Some of these of course are closed due to COVID, but any suggestions in the right direction are helpful.
Hopefully this is even a good idea? Lemme know bc again I have no clue where to start.
submitted by fukoffdood to whiskey [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 01:32 CardboardDeath What codition is the jefferson nickel? I was also wondering what the date was on the buffalo nickel.

What codition is the jefferson nickel? I was also wondering what the date was on the buffalo nickel. submitted by CardboardDeath to coins [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 22:48 ziratha Suing for security deposit back, buffalo ny

Hi, I never received my security deposit back from a prior landlord. I am finally getting around to suing for the return. (It has been about 5 years, and I understand the statute of limitations for this sort of thing is 6 years in NY). I live in (and the was living in during the rental period) buffalo, NY. I have just a few questions about the process of small claims court and how to calculate the amount I should sue for:


1) My google searches tell me I am entitled to interest on the security deposit, but I can't find any info on what interest rate I should ask for. Should I just make up a reasonable rate and ask for that simple interest rate? (I.e. 3% or so?). Interest should accrue from the start of the rental, not the termination date, right? Should interest be calculated using the original security deposit, or the trebled amount I ask about in (3)? Also, as I lived at the property for a few years, and the security deposit was increased partway through, at a lease resigning (It went up $20). How should I calculate interest for this?

2) The landlord in question has moved several times since they were my landlord and I am not totally sure which address is the correct one. Is there a good way to determine his current address beyond just googling him? Do I need the current address or is the court able to figure this out when I file from his name?

3) My googling tells me that, prior to 2019 when some new laws were introduced, a landlord had a "reasonable" amount of time to get your security deposit back, or you may be able to sue for treble damages. It has been several years without a peep from the landlord, so I assume that the "reasonable' timeframe has passed. Is there any other criteria to ensure that trebled damages are reasonable? Do I just ask for security deposit *3 + interest when I file (Plus other damages not mentioned here)?

4) Part of my claim will be that I accidentally overpayed rent by a month (last months rent was prepayed, then autopayed before I got the payments turned off). I did inform the landlord in a text message at the time. He never got back to me. Would I be entitled to interest on this overpayment as well? Presumably from the date of overpayment, or maybe a month afterwards to give a reasonable window of repayment?

5) My lease had a clause that mentioned that I would be responsible for the landlords legal fees if he had to sue/evict me. My googling tells me that, in ny, such clauses are automatically reciprocal. Since ny allows attorneys in small claims court, can I hire an attorney and include his legal fees in the claim? How would this interact with the small claims court maximum claim?

Thanks in advance for your time, and unofficial legal advice!
submitted by ziratha to legaladvice [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 01:57 Averageinblack 27 [F4M] WNY/buffalo/surrounding area. Taking applications.

Looking for the same thing that everyone claims to be looking for.
Here's a little about me:
I like to say I'm ambitious. When I put my mind to something it gets done. I'm a planner but I like to keep my plans in my head. I have a goal for 6 months from now and 6 years from now. I'm stable in the job I have but looking to move forward to a better opportunity.
I'm independent, maybe to a fault. Those plans? They don't rely on you. You can come along for the ride and have your own ideas as well but I am capable of accomplishing things for myself and I take pride in that.
I'm reluctant-adventurous. I'll try anything at least once. I like new experiences but I don't always like to put my neck out there. Sometimes peer pressure is needed. I know I'll have a good time trying things but sometimes I need a push.
When I'm not working you can find me inside renovating my home, or outside working in the yard. I like being in my own space and knowing that it's mine to take care of. As an aside here I have yet to keep a house plant alive for an extended period of time.
I'm not a person that has to always be 'doing'. I quite enjoy just 'being'.
I'm not a neat freak but I can be particular about things. I don't mind things to be a little 'messy' in between scrub down days but I don't keep a dirty home. 2x weekly the entire place gets cleaned, too to bottom. I'm more of a minimalist than not so I don't like clutter but I do like some things.
Currently I'm in the process of changing my lifestyle. I am a happier person keeping a semi regular (and early) bedtime. You won't find me up all hours of the night. I am working on changing my eating habits to reflect how I want to feel. I am also incorporating more regular exercise. I am not a giant person and I am looking to maintain myself in that regard. This is important that you live your life similarly, if not more extreme than what I do.
Now a little of what I'm looking for....
LOCAL.
Now that that's outta the way....
I understand my location is inconvenient at best but I am willing to travel within reason ~1 hr. I'm looking for someone who has the capability to be on their own. A person who has dreams and plans that are not so rigid to not include another person.
Ideally you know what needs to be done around a house, and you like to keep a house that way-not just to appease another person. I'm not looking to be your mother, I shouldn't have to leave a list of what needs done. The washer and dryer won't bite. There's dedicated spots in the fridge for items(put them back where you found them!)
Ideally you are stable or near stable in a job. Perhaps you have your ideal career or are working on getting to it. Being a jack of all trades is nice but it's better in personal life than not knowing where your next endeavor could lead you. Save spontaneity for date night, too much emotional and financial distress comes from bouncing around jobs.
I don't have time for negativity. I surrounded myself with too much blah for too long and I'm just over that. If you never have anything positive to say I don't want to hear from you. Everyone has a sucky day and everyone has bad experiences but life has more to offer than all bad times.
It's very important to me that you are a patient person. Do you lose your cool after a moment of frustration? Imagine listening to a baby cry in a grocery store, not a child an infant. Can you hear it? Can you ignore it or does it grate on your nerves?
I hope none of that makes me sound too demanding, I'm really pretty easy going. If you've made it this far then you get some of the easy things now. I'm 27, from the rural garbage in wny but looking to relocate within 5 years or so to more of the suburbs of buffalo. I'm going back to school next fall for... something business related. I work a regular job and maintain an income property. If a connection is made maybe we can exchange pictures, will also have more personal details to give up.
submitted by Averageinblack to r4r [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:28 Numis-Matico [WTS] Lots of new US Type 🔴Priced to Move🔴 Cheap world silver from almost every country in Africa and Middle East, and a large junk silver coin lot 7% below melt

What if Trader Joe's...but for coins?
In the US, any quantity of coins ship for only $3 TRACKED AND INSURED but can be as low as $1 without tracking.
PROOF: https://imgur.com/a/FHTZEYX
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Goooooooooooooood luck!
Numis-matico's Magic Shipping (US Only)✨: Buy any quantity of coins from me, and it'll all magically ship for only $3 regardless of how big or heavy the package actually is, or where you're located within the USA. Everything is tracked by the USPS and Insured by me for the full amount of your purchase(see below).
Risky Untracked Shipping: $1 in the USA. Coins come in a sturdy envelope without tracking. There is a limit to size; only orders thinner than 0.25 inches and weighing under 3.5oz can be shipped in this method. Should you choose this method, you agree to disclaim my liability if the package is lost or stolen since there is no way to prove whether it was delivered. You may not pay with PP G/S if you choose this option. There's no maximum value for this method per se., but shipping anything valued over $35 is not recommended, and requires your written acknowledgement that I am not responsible if lost or damaged.
Foreign shipping: Starts at $2 for 1oz. Guarantee void unless you pay extra for eDelcon and your country has it.
Payments: Venmo, Cashapp, Zelle, Money Order, Cashapp, GW. (PAYPAL: +3% - the fee is ONLY refundable in cases for which I am at fault)
The Numismatico Guarantee: I guarantee everything I sell. I'm a buyer on this forum as well and want to treat buyers the way I'd like to be treated as a buyer. As I've recently learned, I am unlike many other sellers on this sub because I will guarantee your metals up to the point when it gets delivered to you, as indicated on the tracking. If it gets lost in transit (ie. no delivery within 14 days in the US) of shipment, I will refund you for your order amount 100%. I will also accept refund or compensate you if it gets damaged somehow (but should not because I package with at least 2 layers). This guarantee does not cover any shipment that is sent without delivery confirmation such as if you pay for it shipped in a stamped envelope or if it's shipped to a foreign country in a method that does not include eDelcon as it is impossible to prove whether or not you actually received it. I provide tracking almost immediately upon receipt of payment.
submitted by Numis-Matico to Coins4Sale [link] [comments]


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submitted by PhatA18Sepl to u/PhatA18Sepl [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 14:33 Call_Me_Tsuikyit If you have vehicles with custom license plates, what are your custom license plates?

Every time I ask this question, it gathers a lot of interesting responses, so here I go again, hoping to get more responses than my last post, and hopefully more interesting ones too.
For me, each of my custom license plates are based on the Singapore license plate system, which allows me to show off my nationality in a subtle way, in addition to making Los Santos feel a bit more ‘like home’.
The plates I pick for each vehicle differ, depending on the type of vehicle, livery (if the vehicle has them available), what my recent activities have been about and what kind of number I feel like buying (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4 digits).
So here’s a short list of some of my custom license plates to give you a general idea of what custom license plates my vehicles have:
submitted by Call_Me_Tsuikyit to gtaonline [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 03:32 moneymaaster Review # 10: Blanton's Single Barrel (One of My Favourites)

Review # 10: Blanton's Single Barrel (One of My Favourites)
Blanton's single barrel usually arrives in the Manitoba liquor mart twice a year. Typically you can grab a few bottles before it sells out after a week or two. The price is around $70 Canadian, and basically anytime we get a shipment in the province I pick up a few bottles. There is nothing worse than craving a sip of Blanton's only to realise there is none left in your entire province.
For those unfamiliar with Blanton's, you may know it by seeing it. The bottle is one of the most iconic bourbon bottles around, and has been used in many movies, tv shows, etc.

Cheers
Each bottle includes the date the barrel was dumped as well as a bottle topper that has a horse/jockey in a slightly different position, as well as a letter. A lot of people try and collect them all to spell out "B-L-A-N-T-O-N-S". This specific bottle was dumped March 05, 2020 and has the bottle topper is the letter "B".
*Spoiler Alert* This has been one of my favourite bourbons since the day I first tried it. I haven't yet done a review on it - so here I go....

Blanton's Single Barrel Bourbon

Date Reviewed: September 17, 2020
Atmosphere: In a special rocks glass I was gifted by a good friend for being in his wedding party. Aside from my Glencairn glasses, this is my go to glass for sipping and cocktails.
Distillery: Blanton Distilling Company; Buffalo Trace/Sazerac Company
Mash: Buffalo Trace Mash Bill #2. This is thought to have a slightly higher rye content - about 15%
Age: No Age Statement - Thought to be around 9 years
Type: Bourbon
ABV%: 46.5%
Price I Paid: $70 Canadian
Appearance: Medium AmbeBrown.
Nose: From a mile away I can pick out the sweet, soft smell of Blanton's. It's one of the few bourbons I can take a big whiff of without any burn in my nostrils. Even with the glass resting on your lap, notes of vanilla, milk chocolate and caramel will make its way up to you. Give it a few swirls, and you may get some cinnamon too. If it didn't taste so god damn good - I could spend the whole night just smelling the glass - but alas...I must drink it....
Palate: The first sip continues to showcase it's sweet notes (think an aero chocolate bar - which by the way pares exceptionally well with this bourbon) it is followed by just the right amount of heat. Some spices shine through, maybe nutmeg or cinnamon, and although I've never smoked a cigarette in my life I can see how people would say they can taste a tobacco like flavour in this as well.
Finish: The finish is smooth, and has an almost burnt orange peel like finish. There is zero burn, and every sip is better than the last. I find a lot of whiskey will give you that heartburn like feeling the first few sips you have as it goes down - not this one. So smooth.
Conclusions: While not overly complex, that is what I like about it. Every single time I pour a Blanton's I know what I am going to get. A smooth, tasty bourbon I can enjoy neat or showcase in a cocktail. It's fancy enough for a special occasion sipper, it also makes a great gift, and luckily where I live it's also readily available enough for an everyday sipper. It's both sweet and smooth, but also spicy and has just enough heat for almost anyone to enjoy. While it may not have the punch and complexity of say a Bookers or Stagg Jr, I'd put it right up there next to those on my top shelf. I also highly recommend eating an Aero bar while you sip on this, and let a piece of the bar melt in your mouth between each sip. It is heavenly.
Overall Score: 90/100 (94/100 with an Aero)
This review and all others can be found @ https://moneymaaster.com/booze-reviews/
Cheers
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2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
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2020.09.17 00:51 notaknifenut [WTS] Junk coins and some Buffalo rounds

3 round lot 90$ shipped
proof for 3 round lot http://imgur.com/a/CquDx7a
proof :http://imgur.com/a/OukG9dr
new proof:http://imgur.com/a/POQvyM5
up for sale is a 2 rolls one of junk washingtons and the other of rosies
90$ silver all are great good quality with readable dates and very clean.
10$ face for washingtongs 200$ shipped
(SOLD)5$ face of roosevelt dimes 100$ shipped SOLD
next up are buffalo rounds these are in good condition please look at picture to see quailty they have lighter
and darker spots from what was told happens overtime to some coins
SOLD 28$ each SOLD
4$ for light shipping 8 for priority
i accept venmo and cashapp please feel free to ask questions
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2020.09.16 18:52 isisssss [WTS] Proof Cent, Buff Nickels, AU Details Flying Eagle, 1909 VDB for $3, 2 Cent Pieces, RPD Indian Cent, Clipped Planchet Merc Dime, and more!

Howdy,
The images are in order of how they appear in lot sequencing.
PM or CHAT
proof/images link : https://imgur.com/gallery/1dyyOKI
Trades Could also be done!
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Lot 1: 1960 proof Cent. 75 cents
Lot 2: 1965 2 ore, 10 cents
Lot 3: Scovil James Madison Presidential Token, $5sold
Lot 4: 1909 1 cent, no VDB, $1sold
Lot 5: 1909 VDB Cent, $3sold
Lot 6: 1912 Cent, $1sold
Lot 7: 1913 Type 1 Buffalo Nickel, $4sold
Lot 8: 1934 Buffalo Nickel, XF/AU, $4sold
Lot 9: High AU Details/Low UNC 1857 Flying Eagle, $150
Lot 10: 26 1910-1934 Cents. I think 4 of them are from the 30s, lots of teen dates! $3 for all SOLD
Lot 11: 1936 Clipped Planchet Mercury Dime, $5
Lot 12: 1970 S Small Date Cent, $3
Lot 13: 1866 1C IHP XF40 NGC. RPD. FS-301, Snow-2. $200
Lot 14: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $10
Lot 15: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $10
Lot 16: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $10
Lot 17: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $9
Lot 18: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $8
Lot 19: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $7
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Risky shipping is $0.75 up to 4 ungraded coins.
Shipping first class(with tracking) at $4. First-class is only up to 16oz. Priority is above 16oz, and its $8.
Payment in all avenues except cashapp. Zelle is loved, venmo is as well. Paypal is sneaky, use it as a last resort. NO NOTES!
All items will ship Thursday, Sept 17th, 2020.
submitted by isisssss to Coins4Sale [link] [comments]


2020.09.16 16:54 Taco_Gobbler_1824 Shadow in the dark

 About 13 years ago when me and my wife first started dating I rented a two bedroom first floor apartment not far from where I grew up in Buffalo Ny. It was just me and one other tenant living upstairs. It was 2 lots from the dead end and had no traffic whatsoever. The entire time I lived there, the typical “paranormal” events occurred. Things would move on there own, electronics would turn on and off, I would get chills when it was hot out and just an unsettled feeling. I just got used to it and didn’t let it bother me. That is until THE night it happened. It was cool fall night and the place was closed up and I was sleeping sound. Around 300am my cat started meowing at the foot of my bed. That was unusual seeing he never really meowed at anything other than wanting food. Startled, I awoke to see what the commotion was. He was sitting against my bedroom wall. His nose was touching it and he was not moving a muscle. I thought, great I have some sort of animal in the wall seeing there was a janky crawl space under the house. So I put my ear to the wall to see if I could hear anything... nothing. I brushed it off and laid back down. A minute later more meowing. It was not regular meowing it was more like the fighting guttural meow, like when cats are about to fight. Now I’m getting mad seeing I had to work in 3 hours so again I went up the wall with my ear. BANG! BANG! BANG! Three of the loudest bangs from the other side of the wall right against my ear. So loud my ear was ringing. All my pictures on the wall came crashing down and my heart literally stopped. My bathroom was opposite of that wall and the space between the walls only fit an access panel for the plumbing. I immediately called 911 thinking there had to be someone under the house and some how got inside. Cops came. Nothing. The crawl spaces were all sealed. The vacant apartment upstairs was locked and secured. Needless to say, I needed answers. I called the Buffalo Paranormal Society and explained what happened and they set up an overnight investigation. The only thing they documented was a shadow figure that would materialize and float back and forth from the bathroom wall into my bedroom. No EVPS, no orbs and no other activity other than the shadowy figure. Thankfully whatever was there stayed there. I moved a month after that and thankfully I haven’t had any other instances. 
submitted by Taco_Gobbler_1824 to Ghoststories [link] [comments]


2020.09.16 09:40 skunk_box [WTB] Lots of stuff

Looking to get:
  1. 1939 BU Canada Parliament Dollar
  2. Festival of Great Britain George VI 1951 Crown in original box
  3. A British Crown with King George slaying the Dragon on it (Victoria and Edward preferred)
  4. 1902-1910 Any date British Edward VII Florin, any condition
  5. VF-XF Barber coin (dime, quarter, half), common date, uncleaned, good luster or good circulation cameo
  6. British Queen Victoria coins, any bust, condition, denomination (1/32 farthing up to the crown and anything and everything in between)
  7. 10s, 20s, 30s BU Wheat penny, no toning, red
  8. Z.A.R. South African coins, any denomination
  9. BU buffalo nickel 1913 (any type) or 1937 D/P
  10. Nicer seated coinage
  11. 1967 Centennial Canada Bunny Nickel
  12. 1967 Canada specimen set centennial in OGP, nicer toning preferred
  13. British hammered silver, preferably Queen Elizabeth the First
  14. British Cartwheel pennies/2p 1797 any condition, culls are fine
  15. Dutch East India company copper VOC duits, any yeacondition
  16. German Notgeld Westphalia coinage, any denomination/condition
  17. Clad British Commemorative Crowns
  18. British trade dollar
  19. Prussia 2/5 marks german states Freidric-Wilheim
  20. 1956 proof coins, US
  21. 1924/5/6 50 Kopeks and rouble USSR
  22. German states coinage (any and all)
  23. 1999 Canada Proof Quarters (any month, silver or clad)
  24. Gibraltar 2003 1 pound coin
  25. 1973 Greek 2 Drachmai Owl Design (or 1 drachma)
  26. Prussia German State 3 mark 1910
  27. German States victory 3 marks
  28. Napoleon French coins
  29. Coins with security edges, like this, this (second one from bottom), and/or these, examples include 1943 1/2 rupee and the 1993 5 dollars from hong kong
  30. 1898-1921 France 10 centimes, this
  31. 1922-1935 Italy 1 Lira, this
  32. 1974-87 France 10 Francs, this
  33. Bahamas 1 dollar banknote any condition
  34. Any version any year, BU or proof, Australian dragon 1 oz silver bars, solo dragon or double dragon
  35. 1921 Paderborn Notgeld set 50 pfennig to 2 mark, preferably with the original envelope and uncirculated, all four runs a-d
  36. Saxony State Issued Porcelan Notgeld, 1921, these and this, but gold gilded
  37. Guatemala 1/4 real, the tiny ones
  38. 1971 Mauritius 10 Rupees, this
  39. Greek Euro, owl design (any type)
  40. Coins of Edward VIII, any type
Details coins are fine as long as they aren't harshly cleaned or polished, unless specified
Holed coins, big scratches, rim dings, post-jewelry, and anything similar are fine as long as they are confined, and not like polishing which covers the entire coin.


Paypal cashapp venmo zelle and crypto
submitted by skunk_box to Coins4Sale [link] [comments]


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  1. Mating buffalo - YouTube
  2. Hunting West Africa's Savanna Buffalo - YouTube
  3. Steve Martin - Dating Game 1968 - YouTube
  4. How to date a 'dateless' buffalo nickel - YouTube
  5. Buffalo and horse meeting - YouTube
  6. Enzo Ishall - Fear No Man (Official Video) ft. Buffalo ...
  7. The White Buffalo - Oh Darling, what have I done - YouTube
  8. Women seeking Women Buffalo New York (Real Craigslist Posts)
  9. Herd Rescues Buffalo from Lions and Crocodiles! - YouTube

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